Floods in a Changing Climate: Hydrologic Modeling

0
Various modeling methodologies are available to aid planning and operational decision making: this book synthesises these, with an emphasis on methodologies applicable in data scarce regions, such as developing countries. Problems included in each chapter, and supported by links to available online data sets and modelling tools, engage the reader with practical applications of the models. Academic researchers in the fields of hydrology, climate change, and environmental science and hazards, and professionals and policy-makers working in hazard mitigation, remote sensing and hydrological engineering will find this an invaluable resource. This volume is the second in a collection of four books on flood disaster management theory and practice within the context of anthropogenic climate change. The others are: Floods in a Changing Climate: Extreme Precipitation by Ramesh Teegavarapu, Floods in a Changing Climate: Inundation Modelling by Giuliano Di Baldassarre and Floods in a Changing Climate: Risk Management by Slodoban Simonović.
Table of contents :
Contents......Page 7

Foreword......Page 9
Preface......Page 11
Glossary......Page 13
Abbreviations......Page 15
1.1 Hydrologic models......Page 17
1.3 GIS and DEM for hydrologic modeling......Page 18
1.4 Assessment of climate change impacts......Page 19
1.5 Organization of the book......Page 20
2.1.2 Overland flow......Page 21
2.2.1 Soil Conservation Service curve number method......Page 22
2.2.1.1 Flood hydrograph from the SCS method......Page 23
2.2.2 Rational method......Page 25
2.3 Intensity-duration-frequency relationship......Page 26
2.4 Flood routing......Page 28
2.4.1 Hydraulic routing: the Saint-Venant equations......Page 29
2.4.2 Numerical solutions......Page 30
2.4.3.1 Basic equations......Page 32
2.5 A brief review of commonly used hydrologic models......Page 51
2.5.1.1 Illustration of the model......Page 52
2.5.1.3 Performance evaluation of the model......Page 56
2.5.2.1 Illustration......Page 59
2.5.3.1 Illustration......Page 60
2.6.1.1 Basic principles......Page 61
2.6.1.3 Radial basis function......Page 63
2.6.1.4 Advantages and limitations of ANNs......Page 64
2.6.1.5 An illustration of use of ANNs for flow forecasting......Page 65
2.6.2 Fuzzy logic based models......Page 66
2.6.2.4 Fuzzy dynamic flood routing model for natural channels......Page 67
2.6.2.5 Model development......Page 68
2.6.2.6 Method of computation......Page 69
2.6.2.7 Illustration: flood routing in a natural channel......Page 70
Exercises......Page 72
3.1.1 Climate change: emissions scenarios......Page 75
3.3 Dynamical downscaling approaches......Page 77
3.4.2 Choice of predictor variables......Page 79
3.4.3.1 Interpolation......Page 82
3.4.3.3 Dimensionality reduction......Page 84
3.4.4 Weather typing methods......Page 86
3.4.5 Weather generators......Page 89
3.4.6 Transfer functions......Page 94
3.5 Disaggregation models......Page 96
3.5.1 Deterministic disaggregation techniques......Page 97
3.5.2 Stochastic disaggregation techniques......Page 98
3.6 Macroscale hydrologic models......Page 100
3.8.1 Flood regime description......Page 103
3.8.3 Flood frequency analysis......Page 104
3.8.4 Flood frequency analysis under climate change......Page 105
3.9 Uncertainty modeling......Page 107
3.9.1 Uncertainty modeling in regional impacts......Page 109
3.9.2 Uncertainty propagation......Page 114
3.10 Summary......Page 115
Exercises......Page 118
4.1 Introduction......Page 120
4.1.1.1 Spectral reflectance for vegetation......Page 121
4.1.2 Passive/active remote sensing......Page 122
4.2 Digital images......Page 123
4.2.1 Color composites......Page 124
4.2.2.4 Temporal resolution......Page 125
4.4.1.1 Linear contrast stretch......Page 127
4.4.4 Filtering techniques......Page 128
4.4.5.2 Directional filter......Page 129
4.4.6 Intensity, hue, saturation images......Page 130
4.4.7 Time-composite images......Page 131
4.4.9 Digital mosaics......Page 132
4.5.1 Principal component images......Page 133
4.5.2 Ratio images......Page 134
4.5.3.3 Atmospherically corrected indices......Page 135
4.5.5.1 Unsupervised classification......Page 136
4.5.5.2 Supervised classification......Page 137
4.5.5.3 Ground truth collection/verification......Page 138
4.7 Utility of remote sensing for hydrologic modeling......Page 139
4.7.1.1 Delineating the boundaries of areas likely to get rain......Page 140
4.7.3 Rainfall-runoff modeling......Page 141
4.7.3.2 Distributed hydrologic models......Page 142
4.7.4.3 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission......Page 143
4.8 Demonstration of image processing using MATLAB......Page 144
4.8.1.2 Histogram equalization......Page 145
4.8.2.1 Converting image storage classes......Page 146
4.8.3.3 Multiplying images......Page 147
4.8.5.3 Image rotation......Page 148
4.8.6.4 Edge detection......Page 149
4.9 Conclusions and future scope......Page 150
Exercises......Page 151
5.2 Representation of spatial objects in GIS......Page 152
5.2.4 Comparison of raster and vector formats......Page 153
5.3.2 Raster-based distance tools......Page 154
5.4 Digital elevation models......Page 155
5.4.2.2 Triangulated irregular network......Page 156
5.5 Applications of digital elevation modeling......Page 157
(b) Flow network......Page 158
(e) Stream links......Page 159
(c) Flow accumulation......Page 160
5.6.1 LIDAR......Page 161
5.6.3 Radar interferometry......Page 163
5.7 Combining digital images and maps......Page 164
5.8 Integration of spatial, non-spatial, and ancillary data into a distributed hydrologic model......Page 165
5.9.2 Near real-time monitoring of floods......Page 166
5.9.3 Modeling using LIDAR data......Page 171
5.10.1.1 Internet protocol......Page 172
5.10.1.2 Common web protocols......Page 173
5.10.2 Web GIS......Page 174
5.10.4 Real-time decision support systems (RT-DSS) for hydrologic modeling using Web GIS......Page 175
5.11 Summary......Page 176
Exercises......Page 177
6.1.1 Streamflow projection methods......Page 178
6.1.3 Study region and data used......Page 179
6.1.4.1 Stage 1: Calibration and validation of the SWAT model......Page 181
6.1.4.2 Stage 2: Downscaling......Page 186
6.1.4.3 Stage 3: Disaggregation......Page 187
6.1.5 Summary of the case study......Page 188
6.2.2 Future flood peaks and water availability......Page 190
6.2.3 Uncertainty modeling......Page 193
6.3 Future perspectives......Page 196
6.4 Summary......Page 197
References......Page 199
Index......Page 208
Download
Code

Floods in a Changing Climate: Hydrologic Modeling
Become a 
VIP Member to see this content