Sustainable Concrete Solutions


 The challenges facing humanity in the 21st century include climate change, population growth, overconsumption of resources, overproduction of waste and increasing energy demands. For construction practitioners, responding to these challenges means creating a built environment that provides accommodation and infrastructure with better whole-life performance using lower volumes of primary materials, less non-renewable energy, wasting less and causing fewer disturbances to the natural environment.  Concrete is ubiquitous in the built environment. It is therefore essential that it is used in the most sustainable way so practitioners must become aware of the range of sustainable concrete solutions available for construction. While sustainable development has been embedded into engineering curricula, it can be difficult for students and academics to be fully aware of the innovations in sustainable construction that are developed by the industry. 

Sustainable Concrete Solutions serves as an introduction to and an overview of the latest developments in sustainable concrete construction.  It provides useful guidance, with further references, to students, researchers, academics and practitioners of all construction disciplines who are faced with the challenge of designing, specifying and constructing with concrete.

Table of contents :
Content: Sustainable Concrete Solutions

1 Introduction
1.1 Sustainability and sustainable development
1.2 The role of the design team in sustainable development
1.3 Sustainability credentials of concrete
1.4 Book layout and context
2 Challenges and Responses
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Climate change
2.2.1 Temperature rise
2.2.2 Flooding
2.2.3 Wind damage
2.3 Environmental protection
2.3.1 Resource depletion
2.3.2 Emissions reduction
2.3.3 Transport of construction materials
2.3.4 Preserving biodiversity
2.3.5 Site restoration. 2.4 Social progress2.4.1 Functionality
2.4.2 Safety
2.4.3 Durability
2.4.4 Robustness and Security
2.4.5 Aesthetics
2.4.6 Archaeology
2.4.7 Community involvement
2.5 Economic growth
2.5.1 National economy
2.5.2 Local economy
2.5.3 Household Economy
2.6 Regulatory responses
2.6.1 Global
2.6.2 European
2.6.3 United Kingdom
2.7 Summary
3 Conceptual Design of Buildings and Infrastructure
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Conceptual design of buildings
3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.2 What are sustainable buildings?
3.2.3 Whole building design
3.2.4 Substructures. 3.2.5 Lateral stability3.2.6 Frame and flooring
3.2.7 Cladding
3.2.8 Roofs
3.2.9 Innovations
3.2.10 Environmental Assessment Schemes
3.2.11 Life cycle CO2e studies
3.3 Conceptual design of infrastructure
3.3.1 Ground remediation with stabilisation/solidification
3.3.2 Hydraulically Bound Mixtures (HBM) for pavements
3.3.3 Road construction
3.3.4 Pipes
3.3.5 New modular precast concrete bridges
3.3.6 Sustainable urban drainage systems
3.3.7 Wind Energy Structures
3.3.8 Environmental Assessment Schemes (CEEQUAL)
3.4 Summary
4 Material Specification
4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Assessing environmental impacts of materials4.2.1 The project context and functional equivalence
4.2.2 Range of environmental impacts
4.2.3 Life cycle of materials
4.2.4 Life cycle impact assessment
4.2.5 International standards and concrete product category rules
4.3 Responsible sourcing of materials
4.4 Cements and combinations
4.4.1 Portland cement
4.4.2 Cementitious additions
4.4.3 Designation of cements
4.4.4 Values of embodied CO2 equivalent (ECO2e)
4.4.5 Strength development
4.4.6 Guidance for the specification of cements
4.5 Aggregates. 4.5.1 Naturally occurring aggregates4.5.2 Recycled aggregates
4.5.3 Secondary and manufactured aggregates
4.5.4 Transportation impact from the utilisation of recycled/secondary aggregates
4.5.5 Aggregate size
4.5.6 Guidance for the specification of aggregates
4.6 Water
4.6.1 Water extraction and responsible sourcing
4.6.2 Minimisation of water use
4.6.3 Guidance for the specification of water
4.7 Admixtures
4.7.1 Concrete for different exposure conditions
4.7.2 Extending design life through use of admixtures
4.7.3 Guidance for the specification of admixtures.


Sustainable Concrete Solutions
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